Find the freezing point depression for a solution:. CHROMIUM 333 4. Chromium gets its name from the Greek word for color due to the many colorful compounds that can be made from it. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Chromium mineral. In the pure state it is resistant to ordinary corrosion, resulting in its application as an electroplated protective…. In addition, it targets the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, skin and eyes. Articles of chromium potassium sulfate are included as well. Boiling Point Curve Corrosion resistance in hydrochloric acid. It's boiling point is 2,671 degrees Celsius, and its melting point is 1,907 degrees Celsius. 170 Appendix 2 The Elements Element Symbol mp bp Density χP χAR Element Symbol mp bp Density χP χAR Actinium Ac 1050 3200 10 1. Flammability (solid, gas): n/a. Chromium may be highly polished. Up to date, curated data provided by Mathematica 's ElementData function from Wolfram Research, Inc. both have lower boiling points than alcohols of similar molecular weight and are relatively polar compounds 22 minutes ago What is the formula for the theoretical extraction efficiency of a liquid-liquid extraction, in terms of the fraction of the analyte left in the origi. Here we study melting and boiling points of s, p, d blocks elements. Freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid changes to solid. Do not boil the solution or heat longer than 45 min. It is used as a fine-crystal phase in other sintered carbides, where, like the vanadium carbide, it inhibits growth of submicrometre grains during pressing and sintering. 9 G Sample Of Solid Chromium, Cr, At Its Normal Melting Point. Boiling Point - Saturation In thermodynamics, the term saturation defines a condition in which a mixture of vapor and liquid can exist together at a given temperature and pressure. 00 C and boils at 100. chromium (n. Readily soluble in water, creates an acidic environment due to the complete protolysis of the ion HSO 4-. • Earth crust composition average values are from a report by F. It has a high melting point. Nichrome Composition. S2− has 16 protons and 18 electrons. You'll get the number of neutrons, if you subtract the number of protons from the atomic mass of an. This explains why group 1 metals such as sodium have quite low melting/boiling points, since the metal would be composed of electrons delocalized in a $\ce{M}^+$ lattice. Transition Metals - Melting and Boiling Points of Transition Element VIEW MORE A periodic table of the elements, in chemistry, the arranged array of all the chemical elements in order of ascending order with respect to the atomic number, that is the entire number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Stainless steel is hard and resists corrosion due to the addition of chromium. Small amounts of yttrium (0. A pre-prepared detached renovation project on the City Walls with views overlooking the River Dee D Energy Efficiency Rating 21A City Walls occupies an enviable position on the hi. physical property. But we could also subpackage it according to our customers' requirements. Chromium Its strength, corrosion resistance, and high melting point (1830°C) have led to applications in coating other metallic objects. Like many transition metals, it has a high melting point (1,907 C, 3,465 F) and a high boiling point (2,671 C, 4840 F). “Contact angle of water on chromium nitride thin film prepared on three dimensional materials by chromium plasma-based ion implantation. This imparts an added stabilization to those 5 electrons since the atom as a whole has no angular momentum, because it is spherically symmetric. 07 g/mol) has a boiling point of 78. Chromium is the only element that shows antiferromagnetic ordering in its solid state at and below room temperature. Alloy steel is a steel which has had small amounts of one or more elements (other than carbon) such as such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium and aluminium in addition. boiling points of D block elements how does the boiling point of manganese be so low while chromium got such a high 1(. The element chromium occurs naturally in various states, including trivalent chromium which is an essential nutrient. We wish to thank Illinois Wesleyan University for supporting this study and Mr. Nichrome has a silvery. The isocorrosion curves show tempatures and concentrations above which the corrosion rate exceeds 0. 22 molal, Kb=1. 418 J/g°C specific heat liquid = 0. In nature, it occurs as the rare mineral eskolaite. The entropy change when 2. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Physical properties. Chromium metal is added to alloy steel to increase. Chromium is common in small quantities in the body and has been connected to the body's use of sugar. John McBride and Mr. Safety Data Sheet according to 29CFR1910/1200 and GHS Rev. Chromium is the first element in the 3d series where the 3d electrons start to sink into the inert core; they thus contribute less to metallic bonding, and hence the melting and boiling points and the enthalpy of atomisation of chromium are lower than those of the preceding element vanadium. 20 (20°C), with valences usually 2, 3, or 6. Physical constants for more than 280 common inorganic compounds. CZ is free. Search results for chromium powder at Sigma-Aldrich. Physical properties of matter include color, hardness, malleability, solubility, electrical conductivity, density, freezing points, melting points, and boiling points. Cover the beaker with a watchglass and heat it to near the boiling point on a hotplate with occasional swirling for 30 to 45 min. Acknowledgement. Odor Odorless. This list contains the 118 elements of chemistry. But we can see, some elements have higher melting and boiling points and some have less. This alloy is known as Nichrome 80/20. Basic chromic sulfate is the principal ingredient for leather tanning. Chromium nitrate is a pale green powder. Swallowing a large amount of absorbable cobalt at one time is very rare and is likely not very dangerous. Due to the extremely high boiling point of chromium, gaseous chromium is rarely encountered. 00g sample is 18. “Contact angle of water on chromium nitride thin film prepared on three dimensional materials by chromium plasma-based ion implantation. ACGIH No components of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0. #If you find Chromium Melting And Boiling Point will be the most popular products presented the foregoing few days. extraction solution. This steel-gray, hard metal is the first element found in group six. chromium synonyms, chromium pronunciation, chromium translation, English dictionary definition of chromium. From the physicists' "electron sea" point of view of metal bonding, the higher the ionic charge the metal atom can support, the higher the element's melting and boiling points. Do not allow the solution to evaporate to dryness because hexavalent chromium may be lost owing to reaction with the PVC filter. [6] This compound is a dark-purple solid under anhydrous conditions, bright orange when wet and which dissolves in water concomitant with hydrolysis. Exposure Limits are 8-Hour TWA (Time Weighted Average) unless designated C (Ceiling) or STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit). 0002” of electroplated zinc. "In the electric arc, the temperature is very high(of the order of 6,000-8,000 °C for the GTAW, GMAW, FCAW and SAW processes, and up to 10,000 20,000 °C for the PAW process) and well above the boiling point of the base and filler materials …. If chromium metal or insoluble chromium salts are spilled, the following steps should be taken: 1. Which has the highest boiling point and why? HCl, Ar, or F2? a simple explanation is good. Water boils at 100ºC (212ºF). Melting range is important in the process of manufacturing to ensure proper melting and casting. You eventually get a bright yellow solution containing chromate(VI) ions. oxidation of any Cr(III). Local: Chromium (symbol Cr and atomic number 24) occurs in the oxidation states 0, +2, +3, and +6 states. The data on physical properties of chlorine as determined by different investigators show some variations. Phone: (262) 554-0530 Fax: (262) 554-1337. Here are interesting facts about chromium, a transition metal with the element symbol Cr and atomic number 24. Chromium acetate is a grey-green to blue green pasty mass. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. It is a steel-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point. Chromium by country Imp May 2019 U. 6°F or 2915. If disposing of please consult federal, state and local regulations for proper disposal. Chromium picolinate is the form of chromium commonly found in dietary supplements. When it is more convenient to work in troy weights, the number of ounces per cubic inch of any metal or alloy may be found by multiplying its specific gravity by the constant 0. Small amounts of yttrium (0. Chromium(III) oxide (or chromia) is an inorganic compound with the formula Cr 2 O 3. Chromium is a chemical element having atomic number 24. In this in-depth discussion Sibel and James peel back the layers and dive deep into the current events surrounding Turkey. Physical properties of matter include color, hardness, malleability, solubility, electrical conductivity, density, freezing points, melting points, and boiling points. Which has the highest boiling point and why? HCl, Ar, or F2? a simple explanation is good. It is known to have high corrosion resistance. Chromium metal [Chromium and chromium compounds] - chemical information, properties, structures, articles, patents and more chemical data. This formula is commonly abbreviated Cr2(OAc)4(H2O)2. The metal is a lustrous steel-gray color which takes a high polish. 937 J/g°C _____ KJ Are Required To Melt A 38. Definition 2. Water cannot extinguish magnesium fires. Move out of dangerous area. NTP No components of this product present at levels greater than or equal to 0. Properties of sodium hydrogen sulfate NaHSO4: White. (e) boiling point The density (d) of a substance is an intensive property that is defined as the ratio of its mass (m) to its volume (V). Developer Recommendations: Web Audio API. [10-23] Chromium and Articles by country Imp May 2019 U. Odor Odorless. Chromium is also a blue-gray color, a good conductor of heat, has high melting and boiling points. Specific Heat: Value given for solid phase. I have seen it on two pieces. 3 grams per cubic centimeter. The key difference between chromium and hexavalent chromium is that chromium is a chemical element whereas hexavalent chromium is any compound having chromium in its +6 oxidation state. Harvard Medical School points out that broccoli is a versatile veggie. Chromium's high melting point and. This produces flammable/explosive gas (hydrogen - see ICSC 0001). All metallic nitrates are inorganic salts of a given metal cation and the nitrate anion. Color Green. This boiling point calculator tells you how to calculate the boiling point of most common substances at an arbitrary pressure, basing on the Clausius–Clapeyron relation. Chromium is commonly employed to help functionality of the supplement by controlling the male body's blood sugar level. Physical properties: It is a bright red-orange crystalline solid with a density of 2. The metal is a lustrous steel-gray color which takes a high polish. Purge the headspace above the solution with nitrogen throughout the extraction process to avoid oxidation of any trivalent chromium. Tungsten is mainly used in the production of hard materials based on tungsten carbide, one of the hardest carbides, with a melting point of 2770 °C. NOTE: The acacH should be dispensed in the HOOD. The 18 to 19 percent of chromium which these alloys contain provides resistance to oxidizing environments such as dilute nitric acid. Which aqueous solution has the highest boiling point? 0. Remove all ignition sources where metallic chromium has been spilled. Atomic and Molecular Properties. As a coating it has no capilliary action to oil and water. Many chromium compounds are also used as catalysts for processing hydrocarbons. 2015 Page 3 of 6 Magnesium Ribbon Created by Global Safety Management, 1-813-435-5161 - www. The trend in the boiling points is an indication of stronger metallic bonding in the Group 2 metals than for Group 1. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. Assume that water freezes at 0. Physical properties. The information given is designed only as a guidance for safe handling, use, processing, storage,. Chromium is known for being both an essential nutrient, yet toxic element and for its use in making chrome plating. The Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds. Ventilate area of spill. This arises from strong metallic bonding in transition metals which occurs due to delocalization of electrons facilitated by the availability of both d and s electrons. Chromium (Cr) is chemical element in the transition metals group with an atomic number of twenty-four. Find chemicals information Chromium oxide at guidechem, professional and easy to use. dipole-dipole forces D. Sublimation The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. Physical properties: It is a bright red-orange crystalline solid with a density of 2. At the normal boiling point: 123. 00 F) Freezing/Melting Point: 88. Chromium acetate is a grey-green to blue green pasty mass. boiling point. 0 torr at 45°C. A wide variety of metal chromium options are available to you, such as heating, chemical, and food. At its boiling point the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to atmospheric pressure. The information given is designed only as a guidance for safe handling, use, processing, storage,. The organic matter). 170 Appendix 2 The Elements Element Symbol mp bp Density χP χAR Element Symbol mp bp Density χP χAR Actinium Ac 1050 3200 10 1. This formula is commonly abbreviated Cr2(OAc)4(H2O)2. Chromium is a chemical element which has the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. 9 deg C ( 192. Considering that mass and volume are both extensive properties, explain why their ratio, density, is intensive. This explains why group 1 metals such as sodium have quite low melting/boiling points, since the metal would be composed of electrons delocalized in a $\ce{M}^+$ lattice. Click here to buy a book, photographic periodic table poster, card deck, or 3D print based on the images you see here!. Have a look at this table with the elements of the periodic table arranged in order of increasing boiling points. Page 2 of 4 STEEL MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET PRECOATED - Cured paint/resin film applied to sheet steel. Chromium (Cr) has an atomic mass of 24. Color Green. The boiling point of water decreases by 1ºC for every 285 m of elevation; for example, at the top of Mount Everest (8,848 m), water boils at 69ºC. Density (g cm −3). Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Chromium(IV) oxide, 12018-01-8. The information given is designed only as a guidance for safe handling, use, processing, storage,. Chromium helps your body use sugar properly. Can heavy metals ( lead, mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, etc) be removed from water by boiling? Please give answer with explanation. Chromium carbide is used as a thermal spray material for protecting the underlying metal surface, and as an additive to corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant materials. In its anhydrous (without water) form, aluminum chloride reacts strongly with both water and bases (they can bind with hydrogen), so it's important to keep the compound away from substances that contain either of them. It is one of the most infusible of the metals, requiring a temperature little short of 3000° for fusion. Melting and boiling points are given in degrees centigrade (celsius). However, hexavalent chromium is rare in nature. Gold - Melting Points of Binary Eutectic Alloys - Au - Gold - binary eutectic alloys and melting points. Types 316 (S31600), 316L (S31603), 317 (S31700), 317L (S31703) GENERAL PROPERTIES Types 316 (UNS S31600), 316L (S31603), 317 (S31700) and 317L (S31703) are molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steels which are more resistant to general corrosion and pitting/ crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium-. CZ is free. Its main use is in stainless steels and other specialty alloys. Physical properties: It is a bright red-orange crystalline solid with a density of 2. Cr definition, chromium. From the physicists' "electron sea" point of view of metal bonding, the higher the ionic charge the metal atom can support, the higher the element's melting and boiling points. click on any element's name for further chemical properties, environmental data or health effects. In contrast to the other refractory metals - molybdenum and tungsten - chromium has a relatively low melting point of 1 907 °C. However, at about the same time, others, including Elwood Haynes in the US and engineers at Krupp in Germany, were also developing chromium containing steel alloys. Chromium is a catalytic substance and may cause reaction in contact with many organic and inorganic substances, causing fire and explosion hazard. 00 Mercury Hg −38. The entropy change when 2. Not all are, but this Alessi tea kettle is made out of 100% stainless steel. The synonyms, trade name, chemical formula, and identification numbers of chromium and selected salts are reported in Table 4-1. Sublimation The transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through a liquid phase. 9 secrets of confident body language; 23 September 2019. Chromium gives glass an emerald green colour and is widely used as a catalyst. The container's volume is increased to 2. Hastelloy C-276 is a nickel-molybdenum-chromium-tungsten alloy with excellent general corrosion resistance and good fabricability. Once on an old aluminum sauce pan that was used at my mother's house. Formula: C 4 H 1 0 O / CH 3 (CH 2) 3 OH Molecular mass: 74. Chromium Properties: Chromium has a melting point of 1857+/-20°C, a boiling point of 2672°C, a specific gravity of 7. Chromium - Boiling Point. It is one of the metallic components in the earth's crust and oceans. Most widespread minerals containing Chromium; This list of minerals containing Chromium is built from the mindat. 001 hPa @ 20°C. Selenium: Value given for hexagonal, gray form. Melting Point of Copper Copper is a reddish-brown colored metal used for a number of purposes. 066m MgCl2 Kf = -1. Cover the beaker with a watchglass and heat it to near the boiling point on a hotplate with occasional swirling for 30 to 45 min. Cover the beaker with a watchglass and heat it to near the boiling point on a hotplate with occasional swirling for 30 to 45 min. An aqueous inkjet ink includes at least water, a coloring material, a water-soluble organic solvent component, a surfactant, and resin microparticles. Symbol Cr A lustrous, hard, steel-gray metallic element, resistant to tarnish and corrosion and found primarily in chromite. Search results for chromium powder at Sigma-Aldrich. Define chromium. Fusion and Evaporation Heat of common Materials - Melting points, heat of fusions, boiling points and heat to evaporate common substances - like hydrogen, water, gold and more. Ok but what is the boiling point of an atom of Cr? In the case of Chromium the boiling point is 2672°C. The specific heat of the element is 500K (226. The energy resulting is manifest in electrical energy (which produces light); thermal energy would be released as the bulb in the flashlight glows. When the chromium complex has dissolved, add 500 mg (8. Color Green. Generally, the powder of Chromium oxide will be packed in sealed plastic bags, and then be locked into the carton barrels or sealed in woven bags or craft paper bags. Chromic oxide is a bright green hygroscopic powder with melting point of 2435°C, boiling point of 4000°C and specific gravity of 5. Its melting point is the highest of any metal, 3,410°C (6,170°F) and its boiling point is about 5,900°C (10,600°F). When it is more convenient to work in troy weights, the number of ounces per cubic inch of any metal or alloy may be found by multiplying its specific gravity by the constant 0. 3 (a) S has 16 protons and 16 electrons. Consistent sources: North American supplier for globally sourced ingredients. Mn is releasing 2 electrons for the metallic bond so the density of the electron cloud should be higher than that of Cr which gives only 1electron. 9961 amu Melting Point: 1857. 8 mmol) of acetylacetone. Define chromium. At the normal boiling point: 123. Do not allow the solution to evaporate to dryness because hexavalent chromium may be lost owing to reaction with the PVC filter. Chromium Cr Element 24 Mass Number: 52 Atomic weight: 51. The boiling point of PG is 188C and the boiling point of VG is 290C. List of chemical elements with properties The element number is identical to the amount of protons in the atom nucleus. Which aqueous solution has the highest boiling point? 1. 17 g/m² per side. We can use this information to verify the synthesis of the product,. Definition 2. Chances are she did the wrong thing with salt or tomato sauce, and it looked like little dings in the bottom of the pan that we made with a screwdriver and a hammer. 0002” of electroplated zinc. 6 °F) Boiling Point: 2672. Chromium (0) immediately produce a thin oxide layer. 9961 Density (at room temperature and pressure): 7. The amount of neutrons of an element varies, two atoms with the same amount of protons and neutrons are of the same isotope. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. This page was last modified 22:09, 19 April 2011. Boiling point: 4,840 F (2,671 C) Chromium's high melting point, moderate thermal expansion and crystalline structure stability make it suitable for these purposes. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources. Due to the extremely high boiling point of chromium, gaseous chromium is rarely encountered. The melting point of chromium is 2,180 K. So separating the two is as simple as boiling the water until all that remains is the solid salt. Melting point The temperature at which the solid-liquid phase change occurs. Melting point The temperature at which the solid–liquid phase change occurs. Chromium (Cr) is chemical element in the transition metals group with an atomic number of twenty-four. Chromium Properties: Chromium has a melting point of 1857+/-20°C, a boiling point of 2672°C, a specific gravity of 7. Its melting point is the highest of any metal, 3,410°C (6,170°F) and its boiling point is about 5,900°C (10,600°F). What is the physical state of substance Z at room temperature? Gas Solid Liquid Gas and liquid [MRSM05-21] The melting point and boiling point of substance M is -37 oc and 5 oc respectively. 0-L container has a vapor pressure of 50. Cr(VI) is known to cause cancer. Physical properties of Chromium include melting point, boiling point, mechanical strength. Relative density 5. Basic information, atomic structure, and isotopes. A wide variety of metal chromium options are available to you, such as heating, chemical, and food. Chromium metal is added to alloy steel to increase. Chromium dioxide or chromium(IV) oxide is a synthetic magnetic substance once widely used in magnetic tape emulsion. Vapor pressure: 0. Its main use is in stainless steels and other specialty alloys. It is used as a fine-crystal phase in other sintered carbides, where, like the vanadium carbide, it inhibits growth of submicrometre grains during pressing and sintering. And certain activities like chrome plating, leather dying, wood preserving and stainless steel manufacturing release the contaminant into groundwater. Chromium Potassium Sulfate is generally immediately available in most volumes. Purge the headspace above the solution with nitrogen throughout the extraction process to avoid oxidation of any trivalent chromium. It can exist in oxidation states of +2 to +6. (e) boiling point The density (d) of a substance is an intensive property that is defined as the ratio of its mass (m) to its volume (V). 8 °F Boiling Point/Range No information available Flash Point No information available Evaporation Rate Not. Chromium in Stainless Steel Welding Fumes. 1333-82- 215-607-8 024-001-00- 90 100 % 4. It is one of the most infusible of the metals, requiring a temperature little short of 3000° for fusion. Articles of chromium potassium sulfate are included as well. Melting and boiling points are given in degrees centigrade (celsius). It is used as a fine-crystal phase in other sintered carbides, where, like the vanadium carbide, it inhibits growth of submicrometre grains during pressing and sintering. The 18 to 19 percent of chromium which these alloys contain provides resistance to oxidizing environments such as dilute nitric acid. Health Chromium is an essential trace element in mammalian metabolism. Melts without decomposition, on further heating decomposes. Find out about its chemical and physical properties, states, energy, electrons, oxidation and more. What are the freezing point and boiling point of water on the Kelvin scale? If a 5. But we can see, some elements have higher melting and boiling points and some have less. Copper is a d block metal with valence 4s and penultimate 3d orbitals being pretty close in energy. To convert to Kelvin, add 273. Product Name: Antimony Sulfide Antimony Sulfide formular: Sb2S3 Antimony Sulfide molecular weight: 339. Do not boil the solution or heat longer than 45 min. CHROMIUM 333 4. Chromium Melting And Boiling Point is a preferent pick a number of us. 0 Points Of the intermolecular forces we learned about, which has the greatest strength? A. It is a complicated calculation to determine the dew point, but according to Mark G. The price of 99. e) Hydrogen fluoride has very strong London dispersion forces. The data on physical properties of chlorine as determined by different investigators show some variations. Chromium is widely distributed in the earth's crust. The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources. It is classified as transition metal. The key difference between chromium and hexavalent chromium is that chromium is a chemical element whereas hexavalent chromium is any compound having chromium in its +6 oxidation state. Boiling point The temperature at which the liquid-gas phase change occurs. [10-23] HC Ferro-chromium by country Imp Aug 2019 Japan [10-11]. Unlike covalent compounds, which can be identified using physical properties like boiling point and refractive index, ionic compounds are more appropriately identified with their chemical properties. The residence time of chromium in lake water has been estimated to be 4. The atomic no. Chromium (III) compounds are reduced to Chromium (II) compounds by hypophosphites, concentrated perchloric acid, sodium solution, Cr(III) is readily oxidized to CrO4(-2) by hypclorite, hyprobromite, peroxide, and oxygen under pressure at high temperature. It is odorless and highly water soluble. EC number: 269-052-1 | CAS number: 68186-90-3 This substance is identified in the Colour Index by Colour Index Constitution Number, C. aMelting points and boiling points in °C at 760 torr, densities in g/cc or g/L for gases. -Tel: 1-813-435-5161 - www. Chromium also belongs to the group of refractory metals, which comprises all metals with a higher melting point than platinum (1,772 °C). Chromium processing, preparation of the ore for use in various products. LESSON 6 QUIZ Question 1 of 25 4. Chromic sulfate is used in preparing chrome plating and chromium alloys. The boiling point of chromium is 2,944 K. The usual one package of Chromium oxide is 25kg/drum. John York, Mr. 2 m m/m-°C (over a range of 20°C – 100°C) Matweb. You'll get the number of neutrons, if you subtract the number of protons from the atomic mass of an. Nichrome Composition. Harvard Medical School points out that broccoli is a versatile veggie. Boiling Point: 340 ºC: Form: Reddish-violet crystalline powder: Melting Point: 209-213 ºC : Molecular Weight: 349. This list contains the 118 elements of chemistry. Chromium oxide and rubidium. Boiling point The temperature at which the liquid–gas phase change occurs. Book Review: "Encyclopedia of Common Ingredients Used in Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics" #157, p. 1 CHEMICAL IDENTITY Information regarding the chemical identity of chromium is located in Table 4-1. chromium is a known human carcinogen. Compound Formula Strong, Weak or Non-Electrolyte Potassium hydroxide Acetic acid Sodium chloride Octane Sucrose Ethanol.